Stvarni statut u hrvatskom ZMPP-u iz 2017.
Dr. sc. Vilim Bouček, profesor Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Trg Republike Hrvatske 14, 10000 Zagreb; email@example.com; ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8677-5872
U radu autor analizira mjerodavno pravo za stvarnopravne odnose na temelju odredaba hrvatskog Zakona o međunarodnom privatnom pravu iz 2017. (HRZMPP). Nakon uvodnog dijela, u kojemu daje povijesni i poredbenopravni prikaz načela lex rei sitae, autor u drugome dijelu rada de lege lata razmatra odredbe stvarnog statuta u čl. 20. do 23. HRZMPP-a, a u trećem dijelu iznosi svoja de lege ferenda promišljanja o kolizijskopravnom ustroju općih odredaba mjerodavnoga prava za stvarnopravne odnose. U zaključku ovoga rada autor konstatira da je hrvatsko MPP svojim ZMPP-om iz 2017. europeiziralo opće odredbe stvarnoga statuta ponudivši zakonska pravila koja su u skladu s općim odredbama MPP-a koje postoje i u neunificiranim poredbenopravnim odredbama država europskog kontinentalnog pravnog kruga. Ipak, autor također napominje da je hrvatski zakonodavac 2017. u kodifikaciji hrvatskog MPP-a istodobno propustio prigodu dati novim odredbama stvarnoga statuta viši stupanj elastičnosti uvođenjem većega broja suvremenih poveznica, bitno uže veze kao posebne klauzule izuzeća, ali i mogućnost ograničene primjene stranačke autonomije.
Ključne riječi: hrvatski Zakon o međunarodnom privatnom pravu iz 2017., stvarni statut, načelo lex rei sitae, promjenljivost statuta, pravo bitno najuže veze, stranačka autonomija
Hrčak ID: 272075
Rights in rem in the Croatian Private International Law Act of 2017
Vilim Bouček, Ph. D., Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Trg Republike Hrvatske 14, 10000 Zagreb; firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8677-5872
The paper discusses the rights in rem contained in Arts 20-23 of the Croatian Private International Law Act of 2017 (hereinafter: Croatian PILA). Those new provisions concerning rights in rem, in force since 29 January 2019, repeal Article 18 of the former Croatian Private International Law Act of 1991, in force from 8 October 1991, whose provisions had been taken over from the former Yugoslav PILA of 1982. A general rule on the law applicable to rights in rem over immovable and movable property is the lex situs rule (Art 20 Croatian PILA), unless otherwise provided by this Act.
For the first time in the Croatian autonomous provisions on property rights in PIL Art 21 Croatian PILA lays down changes in the connecting factor. If the movable thing after the acquisition of property rights is relocated to the territory of another state, the change in right in rem is governed by the law applied to the acquisition of property rights (Art 21(1)). The exercise and content of the right in rem on movable property is governed by the law of the state in which the movable property is located (Art 21/2). If on a movable thing after it has been removed from one to another country the property interests had not been acquired previously, circumstances that are prerequisite to the acquisition or loss of those rights initiated in another state are also taken into consideration (Art 21/3).
The special rules remain the same as in Art 18/2 and 3 of the Croatian PILA of 1991, where the applicable law on goods in transit remains the lex loci destinationis or lex loci futuri, i.e. the law of the place of destination (Art 22) and in transport vehicles, for vessels and aircrafts it is the law of the country of their registration or matriculation (Art 23/1). As regards the rights in rem, the only novelty is the written provision concerning vehicles in international rail traffic, which are governed by the law of the state in which the railway transport company has its actual seat (Art 23/2). Although unwritten, the same applicable law applies to vehicles in international road traffic. In respect of the right in rem as regards motor cars, argumentum a contrario ex Art 20 Croatian PILA, the general lex situs rule applies.
Given the de lege ferenda interpretation of the rights in rem provisions of the Croatian PILA, based on Art 11 Croatian PILA which contains the general escape clause, according to the authors’ interpretation, Arts 20, 22 and 23 Croatian PILA should be seen as provisions of the Croatian PIL in which we can also apply a special escape clause if there is a substantially closer connection with the law of a country other than that which would apply under above mentioned Arts 20 and 22-23 Croatian PILA.
In the authors de lege ferenda interpretation of the provisions of rights in rem in Arts 20-23 of the Croatian PILA, the provisions on party autonomy should be also included and narrowly applied, but only with an effect inter partes. The author believes that this approach will at the same time give flexibility to the provisions in rem and will not harm the legal security and the interests of the third parties.
Keywords: Croatian Private International Law Act of 2017, rights in rem, lex situs rule, changes in the connecting factor, the law of substantially closer connection, choice of law by the parties
Hrčak ID: 272075